Does probability refute evolution?

Introduction

Both traditional creationists and intelligent design scholars have invoked probability arguments in criticisms of biological evolution. They argue that certain features of biology are so fantastically improbable that they could never have been produced by a purely natural, “random” process, even assuming the billions of years of history asserted by geologists and astronomers. They

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Are there analogues of evolution in other fields?

Many creationists and others have wondered, if evolution is truly a fundamental, universal principle, why we don’t see evolution in action in arenas other than biological evolution. In the absence of such nonbiological instances of evolution, they argue, the central principle of evolution in biological species is drawn into question.

In fact, there are a

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Is there a “royal road” to science and religion?

Introduction

In his studies of the dialogue between science and religion, the present author is often struck by the fact that persons sympathetic to one side often attack the other side with only the scantest credentials, expertise and knowledge of the issue.

For example, some persons, typically of strong religious backgrounds, have contacted the present

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